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blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank or groin
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Kidney Stone Disease, also known as Renal Calculi or Urolithiasis, in which stone is developed in the urinary tract creating a block in the ureter resulting in severe pain, blood in the urine, vomiting etc. The stone may be as small as less than 0.5mm or as large as above 10mm.
In most of the cases, a combination of environmental factors and genetics are seen. High urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, use of certain medicines such as calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, and decreased fluid intake are common risk factors.
Dehydration due to low intake of fluid is one the major cause of renal calculi. Dietary factor is more prevalent cause such as high protein, fructose, sodium, grape juice, apple juice etc. It is common in Crohn’s disease.
Stones are formed by a gradual deposit of minerals in urine at high concentration. Most common crystals formed in kidney being Calcium oxalate, generally 4-5mm due to supersaturation of calcium and oxalate. This gradually develops and blocks all routes to the renal papillae creating the discomfort. Staghorns form of stone are larger and produces retention of urine. Small stones break off can be trapped in the urinary glands. Displaced stones may cause block in the ureter.
Formation of kidney stone
Animal protein creates an acid load which increases the urinary calcium excretion and also acidifies the urine promoting the formation of stones. Low urinary citrate due to animal protein intake is also a triggering factor as citrate prevents the crystal aggregation and growth, inhibits urine supersaturation of cacium ions. Vitamin D supplements too increases the absorption of calcium through intestine. High dietary sodium may also increase urinary calcium excretion.
Generally renal calculi are classified based on their position namely; Nephrolithiasis (in Kidney), Ureterilithiasis (in Ureter), Cystolithiasis (in Bladder) . Calculi are of different type such as calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, cystine.
Signs & Symptoms
Significant symptom of an obstructing ureter is excruciating, intermittent pain that radiates from flank to the groin or to the inner thigh known as renal colic, commonly accompanied by urinary urgency, restlessness, hematuria, sweating, nausea and vomiting. The colicky pain may last for 20-60 minutes is due to the peristaltic movement arised to expel the stone out.
Ayurvedic Renal Calculi Treatment
Fluid intake should be more than two litres per day so that there is no chance of mineral deposition.
Avoid Dietary calcium, animal protein, sodium, vitamin C supplements
Avoid soft drinks, fluoridated tap water.
Include dietary oxalate so as to bind calcium and thereby preventing its absorption. Also dietary citrate in
order to increases the urinary citrate excretion. Dietary magnesium and potassium is found to have effect in preventing stone formation.
Ayurveda advices Vegetarian diet which promotes urinary citrate excretion. Thus Ayurveda has a keen role in prevention of stone formation. In most of the successful cases, stone size below 10mm is seen easily manageable with Ayurvedic Internal medicine.